Sulfur bath therapy has long been in use for the therapy of patients suffering from rheumatic disorders and is still considered helpful for the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA).
In spa resorts all over the world, such as in Vienna-Oberlaa hundreds of patients are treated every year. However, scientific investigations dealing with the beneficial as well as adverse effects of this kind of treatment are rare and have sometimes led to controversial results. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. H2S exerts a host of effects on various biological targets, resulting in responses that range from cytotoxicity to cytoprotective effects. Several studies have demonstrated cytoprotective effects of H2S at micromolar concentrations, which may be related to its ability to neutralize a variety of reactive species including oxyradicals, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid and homocysteine. Higher (millimolar) H2S exposure tends to be cytotoxic due to free radical and oxidant generation, calcium mobilization, glutathione depletion, as well as the induction of mitochondrial cell death pathways.
For more information see attached file "Sulphur Therapy".